Pillole Spaziali - Puntata 14 b - La teoria della relatività generale

2021.10.28 02:13 Regina_dInghilterra Pillole Spaziali - Puntata 14 b - La teoria della relatività generale

Vi ricordo che questi argomenti sono già stati in parte trattati nella puntata 3, per ciò questa non esce, come di consueto, di domenica.
Martedì abbiamo parlato della teoria relatività ristretta, che si occupa solo dei sistemi inerziali, ovvero di corpi che non cambiano velocità o direzione.
Oggi parliamo della teoria relatività generale, che, guarda caso, generalizza la teoria della relatività ristretta.
Partiamo da un fatto che forse già conoscete. Prendete un martello e una piuma e fateli cadere contemporaneamente. Chi cade prima? Naturalmente il martello. Questo però è dato esclusivamente dalla resistenza dell’aria. In realtà l’accelerazione con cui i corpi cadono in un campo gravitazionale non dipende dalla massa. In effetti gli astronauti, durante una missione sulla luna, hanno fatto cadere un martello e una piuma contemporaneamente, e sono atterrati contemporaneamente.
Einstein iniziò a studiare i corpi accelerati ed ebbe una idea brillante. Immaginate di trovarvi in una capsula dispersa nello spazio profondo. Se prendete un martello è una piuma, i due oggetti fluttuano, perché non ci sono forze in gioco. Se adesso però la capsula stesse cadendo in un campo gravitazionale, cosa succederebbe? Se l’accelerazione non dipende dalla massa, allora tutti gli oggetti, capsula e persona compresa, dovrebbero cadere con la stessa accelerazione. E quindi dal vostro punto di vista, non sarebbe cambiato nulla, gli oggetti continuerebbero a fluttuare.
La cosa vale anche al contrario. Immaginate di essere su un razzo che sta accelerando. Voi vi sentite schiacciati verso il pavimento del razzo. Quindi non potete nuovamente capire se vi trovate all’interno di un corpo che accelera, o se siete in un campo gravitazionale.
L’idea di Einstein era quindi questa: un sistema di riferimento accelerato è equivalente ad un sistema non accelerato in un campo gravitazionale.
Quello che succede dopo è un sacco di matematica molto complicata. Questa poi porterà anche al fatto che per chi si trova in un campo gravitazionale, il tempo scorre più lentamente, cosa che ho cercato di spiegare nella puntata III.
C’è però una conseguenza facile da comprendere ma molto importante, tant’è che ancora oggi definisce la gravità.
Immaginate di stare nella capsula che cade in un campo gravitazionale, come la Terra. Ora puntate una torcia verso una parete. Il raggio di luce seguirà ovviamente una traiettoria retta. Ma immaginate di guardare questa scena dall’esterno. Vedrete che il raggio ora seguirà una traiettoria curva, perché man mano che questo raggiunge la parete, la capsula sta scendendo. Ma la luce segue sempre la traiettoria più breve, quindi la massa deve curvare lo spazio. E questa è ancora oggi la definizione di gravità: una manifestazione della curvatura dello spazio data dalla presenza di massa. Per Einstein quindi la gravità è molto più semplice di quella di Newton. La Terra sta letteralmente cadendo verso il Sole, che sta curvando lo spazio intorno a lui (immaginate uno spazio a due dimensioni, come un telo elastico, con una sfera che lo curva, per comodità). Naturalmente la Terra non lo fa “rotolando” verso il Sole, ma lo fa rimanendo in orbita.
Spero che con queste due puntate abbiate capito un po’ la relatività, ma sopratutto perché Einstein è considerato uno dei più grandi geni della storia.
Grazie se siete arrivati fin qui, a domenica.
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2021.10.28 02:13 Emeecael Update on Migration

The window for the sending of Advar Protocol tokens is now closed. Be reminded that, any tokens bought after after 1.46PM pm UTC on October 26th, 2021 is in invalid and will not be accepted. Persons who do this will not be airdropped. We are pretty close to finishing the new contract. We will update you on that very soon.
If you didn’t buy any new tokens after 1:46pm on OCTOBER 26th ,2021 you can still send your tokens to the provided address.
0x6307aFBB292747d3C31E78b315Db4Bcd85A2409F.
You have up to 3 pm UTC today to send it . If you bought after 1:46 pm on OCTOBER 26th you have to sell that one else you won’t be airdropped. Thanks . We have given another chance to those that haven’t sent it yet .
Thank you.
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2021.10.28 02:13 rudekeith I heard a cat meowing like crazy nearby & found it killing a pigeon just outside Rhodes. The amount of detail that went into this game is staggering.

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2021.10.28 02:13 wavebend Safety of Heat Exchanger Masks (AirTrim, Cold Avenger, Ergodyne)

Hello,
If anyone has heard of heat exchanger masks such as
- AirTrim https://www.amazon.ca/gp/product/B07N7MSJHT?th=1 or
- the Cold Avenger https://coldavenger.com/collections/face-masks or
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I'm wondering have these masks been tested to be safe to breathe in for long periods of time? The AirTrim for instance is made of corrugated plastic, and I wonder if overtime you'll be breathing in bits of microplastics as the mask breaks down.
Does anyone have a clue?
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About of month ago Dot came down with some fit rot when his dorsal fin had almost completely rotted away. I placed him into a 10gal quarantine tank and treated him with mardel maracyn. after a week of that and seeing no improvement i came here and asked for advice. I tried metroplex based off of what people said and what i had on hand. unfortunately since then ive encountered a lot of health issues myself and was unable to care for him properly. I medicated him and fed him accordingly but past that i couldnt do much else. Im feeling better now and i was taking care of dot and finally saw him. he looks awful and i dont know what to do. im starting to treat him with neoplex after i did a water change. his tank is heated to 78*f. levels are 20-30ppm nitrate, 0 nitrite, .5 ppm ammonia (just did a water change and my water normally has a bit of ammonia in it)., 6.7 ph. He is eating well and still comes up to me and is swimming around.
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2021.10.28 02:13 fusetop Plant Niches

What niches can plants take advantage of to avoid competition with each other? I know that plants will adapt to live exclusively in certain environments, but I want to know how plants with similar or the same niches, like multiple types of trees in a forest, can live with each other seemingly without competition
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